Manual Deception Plan

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File photo of British dummy tank. US National Archives. While FUSAG was, in essence, fictional and hence a "phantom army" a number of clever deception tactics were used to further make it seem real, to varying degrees of success. This included the display of dummy landing craft, which were made of wood and canvas and nicknamed "Bigbobs" as well as inflatable tanks, a deception tactic that had been used in North Africa and prior to the landings in Italy in One of the most basic tactics was to create unit insignia in the form of shoulder patches, which were provided to soldiers who would wear them in towns and cities where there were suspected German agents.

However, by nearly all of the German agents had been intercepted and many were recruited as double agents under the "Double Cross System.

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Paradummies, known as "Rupert," were used as part of the Allies' D-Day deception strategy. Known as "Garbo" Juan Pujol Garcia took matters further and created a network of imaginary agents, whom he told the Germans were supplying him information on the German preparations. He misled the Germans about the time and location of the invasion and helped convince his German handlers that Pas de Calais was the target of the main attack. He believed it because it had been verified in the past.

Similar efforts, including fake units and bogus radio traffic, were used as part of Fortitude North under Operation Cockade, which created a fictional British Fourth Army that was headquartered at Edinburgh Castle. Along with reports from two Norwegian double agents — dubbed "Mutt and Jeff" — and British commando raids in Norway, the Germans were on guard in Norway, and even by the spring of , there were still 13 army divisions stationed there. However, the overall importance of Operation Bodyguard remains one of debate, and some of the efforts may not have been necessary — notably the decoy landing craft and tanks.

Collection of Peter Suciu. It was minimal," she told Fox News. Even with the double agents sending the reports back there was more than the Germans could go through". But rather than being wasted it was an insurance policy, added Barbier. The combined efforts did pay off in big ways. Boudreau had organized an experimental laboratory dedicated to camouflage research and development. This laboratory experimented with everything from chicken feathers to tin cans.

These men used their training in texture, shadow, color, and shape to deceive the enemy. They took a literal interpretation of the art of war and the battlefields of war-torn Europe provided their canvas. Visual deception requires extreme attention to detail, appreciation for how light interacts with a physical object to generate shadow, and how texture can optically transform two-dimensional images into three-dimensional shapes. The Ghost Army built on these techniques and more.

They fostered the illusion of activity around their inflatable assets by pitching tents, lighting fires, hanging laundry, and creating tire tread marks for their dummy tanks. At night, flash canisters were used to simulate firing.

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By day, they painted signs and helmet insignias to mimic Army divisions that were, in reality, maneuvering elsewhere. Everything was choreographed to the most minute detail. It was like a traveling road show that went up and down the front lines. Ghost Army artists went on to illustrious careers in the art world after the war. Brooklyn native Art Kane went into photography, capturing the legendary image of 57 jazz musicians sitting on a stoop in Harlem. Ellsworth Kelly rose to fame for his minimalist deconstructions of the physical world, jettisoning conventional canvases, and designing pieces that exist somewhere between traditional paintings and sculpture.

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These creative types offer some useful lessons for the present. This naturally includes manipulating data and information via cyber and electronic means. Likewise, social media, as we have witnessed repeatedly over the last few years, can be leveraged by hostile actors in order to misinform and misdirect.

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This new battlefield requires warfighters with unique skills: computer programmers, hackers, big data analysts, engineers, social media mavens, and artificial intelligence and machine learning scientists. While the stereotype of hackers as anti-social, un-athletic men clad in black hoodies hunched over a keyboard is overwrought, it is also true that the skills that may help us to fight and win in an increasingly contested and complex battlespace may force us to rethink current recruitment and retention paradigms. Indeed, the Ghost Army proves otherwise.

Instead, like the troops conscripted from other sectors of society, the artists held their own. When under fire, they maintained their cool and completed their missions. In the end, the artists proved their worth, earning a letter of commendation at the end of their service from the commander of the 9 th Army, Gen. At the outset of World War II, sonic deception was in its infancy.

The British experimented with sonic deception in late , yet, it was unclear if sound could be effectively employed for trickery. The science of recording and playback was still immature — recording equipment was bulky and speakers had limited range and accuracy. The area proved an ideal location for testing sonic deception. The diverse terrain at Pine Camp — woods, open land, and lake — provided an ideal experimental test bed for identifying the distance sound travels under different topographic and weather conditions.

The nd — the sonic portion of the Ghost Army — used the tests at the Army Experimental Station to create a firing table with sound ranges based on topography and weather. Much like how artillery can identify the range of its munitions, the nd could do the same, but their ordnance was noise. Upon deployment, sonic deception was so successful that even members of the 23 rd found it deceiving.

As one Ghost Army G. Psychologically it was the most unnerving thing; I would actually begin to see tanks in the dark. Just as the U.

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Information operations employ tools — any tool — to positively shape the information environment in support of friendly force missions. Live training ranges fail to simulate the complexities of the technical and cognitive dimensions of the information battlespace.

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Indeed, experimentation must move beyond the physical environment to the information environment. As one senior executive civilian in the U. Not only did this immediately deprive German Gen. Erwin Rommel of a wealth of tactical intelligence, the captured intercept unit and an affiliated German intelligence handbook cued the Allies into Axis intelligence gathering techniques. The 23 rd realized that if they were to effectively impersonate U.

Not only would they have to emulate how different radio nets functioned, but they would also have to mimic individual level radio operators. The men of the 23 rd began eavesdropping on friendly radio force transmissions. This information formed the basis for elaborate radio deception scenarios.

However, it was not just via radio that the Germans were able to identify Allied troop movements and planning. As a result, the 23 rd became actors, the local villages their venues, and the villagers their audience. The Ghost Army would mimic the distinctive characteristics of the unit they sought to impersonate: vehicle markings, road and command post signs, how uniforms were worn, their patches, or the ways in which military police were positioned around the division area.

Impersonation is our racket. They required the Ghost Army to collect intelligence on American units.

Target of the operation

This involves understanding how adversaries acquire intelligence, and how they then translate that intelligence into combat decisions. As a recent Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments report notes ,. Although enemy decision-making has always been a target for military operations, advances in electromagnetic sensors, communications, and countermeasures during the last 20 years make a singular focus on information a more viable warfighting strategy.

If done effectively, it can play an important role in denying an adversary accurate situational awareness. The Allied aim in this operation was to seize the main port facility at Brest and to clear the Bretton coastline of German coastal artillery.